[Tense] – Lesson 1: Simple Present

Form

be

affirmative negative question
I I am. I am not. Am I?
he/she/it He is. He is not. Is he?
you/we/they You are. You are not. Are you?

have

affirmative negative question
I/you/we/they I have got. / I have. I have not got. / I do not have. Have I got? / Do I have?
he/she/it He has got. / He has. He has not got. / He does not have. Has he got? / Does he have?

other verbs

affirmative negative question
I/you/we/they I play. I do not play. Do I play?
he/she/it He plays. He does not play. Does he play?

Exceptions in Spelling

Exception Example
The verbs can, may, might, must remain the same in all forms. So don’t add s. he can, she may, it must
Verbs ending in o or a sibilant (ch, sh, s, x) add es instead of s. do – he does, wash – she washes
A final y after a consonant becomes ie before s. (but: don’t modify y after a vowel) worry – he worries (but: play – he plays)

Short Forms

affirmative negative
I am English. = I‘m English. I am not English. = I‘m not English.
We are English.= We‘re English. We are not English. = We‘re not / We aren’t English.
He is English. = He‘s English. He is not English. = He‘s not / He isn’t English.
I have got a dog. = I‘ve got a dog. I have not got a dog. = I‘ve not got a dog. / I haven’t got a dog.
He has got a dog. = He‘s got a dog. He has not got a dog. = He‘s not got a dog. / He hasn’t got a dog.
I do not play tennis. = I don’t play tennis
He does not play tennis = He doesn’t play tennis.

Use

Use Example
action in the present taking place once, never or several times Colin always plays soccer on Tuesdays.
actions in the present taking place one after another She takes her bag and leaves.
facts (something is generally known to be true) The sun sets in the west.
action set by a timetable or schedule The train leaves at 9 pm.
verbs of possession, senses, emotions and mental activity I love her.

Typical Signal Words

  • always
  • every …
  • often
  • normally
  • usually
  • sometimes
  • seldom
  • never
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