[Tense] – Lesson 10: Future Progressive

Future I Progressive

Introduction

Future I progressive puts emphasis on the course of an action taking place in the future.

Form

  • A: He will be talking.
  • N: He will not be talking.
  • Q: Will he be talking?

Use

  • action that is going on at a certain time in the future
  • action that is sure to happen in the near future

Signal Words

  • in one year, next week, tomorrow

Future II Progressive

Introduction

Future II progressive puts emphasis on the course / duration of an action taking place before a certain time in the future. It can also be used to express an assumption regarding a future action.

Future II progressive is not used very often as it can usually be replaced by future II simple.

Form

  • A: He will have been talking.
  • N: He will not have been talking.
  • Q: Will he have been talking?

Use

  • action taking place before a certain time in the future
  • puts emphasis on the course of an action

Signal Words

  • for …, the last couple of hours, all day long

[Tense] – Lesson 9: Future Simple

Future: “Will”

Introduction

Will future expresses a spontaneous decision, an assumption with regard to the future or an action in the future that cannot be influenced.

Form of will Future

positive negative question
no differences I will speak. I will not speak. Will I speak?

Use of will Future

  • a spontaneous decisionexample: Wait, I will help you.
  • an opinion, hope, uncertainty or assumption regarding the futureexample: He will probably come back tomorrow.
  • a promiseexample: I will not watch TV tonight.
  • an action in the future that cannot be influencedexample: It will rain tomorrow.
  • conditional clauses type Iexample: If I arrive late, I will call you.

Signal Words

  • in a year, next …, tomorrow
  • Vermutung: I think, probably, perhaps

Future: “Going to”

Introduction

Going to future expresses a conclusion regarding the immediate future or an action in the near future that has already been planned or prepared.

Form of going to Future

positive negative question
I I am going to speak. I am not going to speak. Am I going to speak?
you / we / they You are going to speak. You are not going to speak. Are you going to speak?
he / she / it He is going to speak. He is not going to speak. Is he going to speak?

Use of going to Future

  • an action in the near future that has already been planned or preparedexample: I am going to study harder next year.
  • a conclusion regarding the immediate futureexample: The sky is absolutely dark. It is going to rain.

Signal Words

  • in one year, next week, tomorrow

[Tense] – Lesson 8: Past Perfect Progressive

Introduction

The past perfect progressive puts emphasis on the course or duration of an action taking place before a certain time in the past.

Form

  • A: He had been talking.
  • N: He had not been talking.
  • Q: Had he been talking?

Use

  • action taking place before a certain time in the past
  • sometimes interchangeable with past perfect simple
  • puts emphasis on the course or duration of an action

Signal words

  • for, since, the whole day, all day

[Tense] – Lesson 7: Past Perfect Simple

Introduction

The past perfect simple expresses an action taking place before a certain time in the past.

Form of Past Perfect Simple

Positive Negative Question
no differences I had spoken. I had not spoken. Had I spoken?

For irregular verbs, use the past participle form (see list of irregular verbs, 3rd column). For regular verbs, just add ed.

Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ed

Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ed Example
after final e, only add d love – loved
final consonant after a short, stressed vowel
or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled
admit – admitted
travel – travelled
final y after a consonant becomes i hurry – hurried

Use of Past Perfect

  • action taking place before a certain time in the past
    (putting emphasis only on the fact, not the duration)Example: Before I came here, I had spoken to Jack.
  • Conditional Sentences Type III (condition that was not given in the past)Example: If I had seen him, I would have talked to him.

Signal Words

  • already, just, never, not yet, once, until that day (with reference to the past, not the present)
  • If-Satz Typ III (If I had talked, …)

[Tense] – Lesson 6: Past Progressive

Introduction

The past progressive puts emphasis on the course of an action in the past.

Form

Positive Negative Question
I / he / she / it I was speaking. I was not speaking. Was I speaking?
you / we / they You were speaking. You were not speaking. Were you speaking?

Exceptions in Spelling

Exceptions in spelling when adding ing Example
final e is dropped (but: ee is not changed) come – coming
(but: agree – agreeing)
after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled sit – sitting
l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled (in British English) travel – travelling
final ie becomes y lie – lying

Use of Past Progressive

  • puts emphasis on the course of an action in the pastExample: He was playing football.
  • two actions happening at the same time (in the past)Example: While she was preparing dinner, he was washing the dishes.
  • action going on at a certain time in the pastExample: When I was having breakfast, the phone suddenly rang.

Signal Words of Past Progressive

  • when, while, as long as

[Tense] – Lesson 5: Simple Past

Introduction

The simple past expresses an action in the past taking place once, never, several times. It can also be used for actions taking place one after another or in the middle of another action.

Form of Simple Past

Positive Negative Question
no differences I spoke. I did not speak. Did I speak?

For irregular verbs, use the past form (see list of irregular verbs, 2nd column). For regular verbs, just add “ed”.

Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ‘ed’

Exceptions in spelling when adding ed Example
after a final e only add d love – loved
final consonant after a short, stressed vowel
or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled
admit – admitted
travel – travelled
final y after a consonant becomes i hurry – hurried

Use of Simple Past

  • action in the past taking place once, never or several timesExample: He visited his parents every weekend.
  • actions in the past taking place one after the otherExample: He came in, took off his coat and sat down.
  • action in the past taking place in the middle of another actionExample: When I was having breakfast, the phone suddenly rang.
  • if sentences type II (If I talked, …)Example: If I had a lot of money, I would share it with you.

Signal Words of Simple Past

  • yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1990, the other day, last Friday
  • If-Satz Typ II (If I talked, …)

[Tense] – Lesson 4: Present Perfect Progressive

Introduction

Like all Present Perfects, the Present Perfect Continuous links an action in the past with the present time. In English, there are two main uses of the Present Perfect Continuous (also called Present Perfect Progressive).

Form of Present Perfect Continuous

Positive Negative Question
I / you / we / they I have been speaking. I have not been speaking. Have I been speaking?
he / she / it He has been speaking. He has not been speaking. Has he been speaking?

Exceptions in Spelling

Exceptions in spelling when adding ing Example
final e is dropped
(but: ee is not changed)
come – coming
(but: agree – agreeing)
after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled sit – sitting
l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled (in British English) travel – travelling
final ie becomes y lie – lying

Use of Present Perfect Continuous

  • puts emphasis on the duration or course of an action (not the result)Example: She has been writing for two hours.
  • action that recently stopped or is still going onExample: I have been living here since 2001.
  • finished action that influenced the presentExample: I have been working all afternoon.

Signal Words of Present Perfect Continuous

  • all day, for 4 years, since 1993, how long?, the whole week